Super Duplex Stainless Steel

UNS S32750 & UNS S32760

Super Duplex Plate/Sheet

Super Duplex Seamless & Welded Tube

Super Duplex Seamless & Welded Pipe

Super Duplex Round Bar

Super Duplex Flanges F53/F55

Super Duplex Specialty Forgings

Super Duplex Seamless & Welded BW Fittings

Trade Name UNS Super Duplex Industry Specifications Chemical Composition Min.Tensile (KSI) Min.Yield (KSI) Elongation %
SAF 2507® UNS S32750 ASTM A182 F53, A240, A276, A479, A789, A790, A815, A928, A988
SAE J405
C 0.030 max
Cr 24.0-26.0
Cu 0.5 max
Mn 1.20 max
Mo 3.0-5.0
N 0.24-0.32
Ni 6.0-8.0
P 0.035 max
S 0.020 max
Si 0.8 max
116 80 15
UNS S32760 ASTM A182 F55, A240, A276, A314, A473, A479, A789, A790, A815, A928, A988
SAE J405
C 0.03 max
Cr 24.0-26.0
Cu 0.5-1.0
Mn 1.0 max
Mo 3.0-4.0
N 0.2-0.3
Ni 6.0-8.0
P 0.03 max
S 0.01 max
Si 1.0 max
W 0.5-1.0
 109 80 25

SAF 2507® is a registered trademark for Sandvik

This is a Duplex alloy stainless steel designed to feature high strength, resistance to pitting, stress corrosion cracking, erosion corrosion and corrosion fatigue, crevice corrosion and strong weldability.

Super Duplex Applications

Oil and gas industry equipment, Offshore platforms, heat exchangers, process and service water systems, fire-fighting systems, injection and ballast water systems, Chemical process industries, heat exchangers, vessels, and piping, Desalination plants, high pressure RO plants and seawater piping, Mechanical and structural components, high strength, corrosion-resistant parts, Power industry FGD systems, utility and industrial scrubber systems, absorber towers, ducting, and piping.

Super Duplex Corrosion Resistance

The high chromium and molybdenum content of Super Duplex makes it extremely resistant to uniform corrosion by organic acids like formic and acetic acid. Super Duplex also provides excellent resistance to inorganic acids, especially those containing chlorides.

The pitting Resistance equivalent of Super Duplex, calculated by PREN = Cr + 3.3Mo + 16N, will exceed 40 in most material forms.

Duplex Stainless Steel

UNS S31803 – UNS S32205

Duplex Plate/Sheet

Duplex Seamless & Welded Tube

Duplex Seamless & Welded Pipe

Duplex Round Bar

Duplex Flanges F51

Duplex Specialty Forgings

Duplex Seamless & Welded BW Fittings

Trade Name UNS Duplex Industry Specifications Chemical Composition Min.Tensile (KSI) Min.Yield (KSI) Elongation %
SAF 2205®
UNS S31803 ASME SA-182 (F51), SA-240, SA-798, SA-790, SA-815
ASTM A182 (F51),A240, A276, A479, A789, A790, A815, A928,
SAE J405
C 0.30 max
Cr 21.0-23.0
Mn 2.00 max
Mo 2.50-3.50
N 0.08-0.20
Ni 4.50-6.50
P 0.030 max
S 0.020 max
Si 1.00 max
90 65 25
SAF 2205®
UNS S32205 ASME SA-182 (F60), SA-240, SA-798, SA-790, SA-815 C 0.30 max
Cr 22.0-23.0
 95 65 25
Trade Name UNS Duplex Industry Specifications Chemical Composition Min.Tensile (KSI) Min.Yield (KSI) Elongation %
  ASTM A182 (F60), A240, A276, A479, A480, A798, A790, A815, A928, A988
SAE J405
2.00 max
Mo 3.00-3.50
N 0.14-0.20
Ni 4.50-6.50
P 0.030 max
S 0.020 max
Si 1.00 max

SAF 2205® is a registered trademark for Sandvik

General Duplex stainless steel information

2205 is the most widely used duplex (ferritic/austenitic) stainless steel grade. It finds applications due to both excellent corrosion resistance and high strength. The standard duplex S31803 composition has over the years been refined by many steel suppliers, and the resulting restricted composition range was endorsed as UNS S32205 in 1996. Duplex S32205 gives better guaranteed corrosion resistance, but for much of the Duplex S31803 currently produced also complies with Duplex S32205. 2205 is not generally suitable for use at temperatures above 300ºC as it suffers from precipitation of brittle micro constituents, nor below -50ºC because of its ductile-to-brittle-transition.

Duplex Applications

  • Chemical processing, transport and storage,
  • Oil and Gas exploration and processing equipment,
  • Marine and other high chloride environments,
  • Pulp and paper digesters, liquor tanks and paper machines.

Duplex Corrosion Resistance

Excellent general corrosion resistance; superior to Grade 316 in most environments. Excellent resistance to localized corrosion including intergranular, pitting and crevice corrosion; the CPT of 2205 is generally at least 35ºC. The grade is also resistant to chloride stress corrosion cracking (SCC) at temperatures of up to about 150ºC. Grade 2205 will often perform well in environments which cause premature failure of austenitic grades. It has better resistance to sea water then Grade 316.

Duplex Heat Resistance

Although 2205 has good high temperature oxidation resistance, this grade – like other duplex stainless steels – suffers from embrittlement if held for even short times at temperatures above 300ºC. If embrittled, this can only be rectified by a full solution annealing treatment. Duplex stainless steels are almost never used above 300ºC.

Duplex Heat Treatment

Solution treatment (annealing) – heat to 1020ºC-1100ºC and cool rapidly. This grade cannot be hardened by thermal treatment, but does work harden.


Grade 1 – UNS R50250

Grade 2 – UNS R50400

Grade 5 – UNS R56400

Grade 7 – UNS R52400

Grade 9 – UNS R56320

Grade 12 – UNS R53400

Titanium Seamless Tubing

Titanium Seamless Pipe

Titanium Round Bar

Titanium Plate/Sheet

Titanium Seamless & Welded Butt-weld Fittings

Titanium Specialty Forgings

Trade Name UNS Titanium Industry Specifications
Hardness Tensile
Grade 1 UNS R50250 AMS AMS-T-81915
ASTM F67(1), B265(1), B338(1), B348(1), B381(F-1), B861(1), B862(1), B863(1), F467(1), F468(1), F1341
C 0.10 max
Fe 0.20 max
H 0.015 max
N 0.03 max
O 0.18 max
Ti Remaining
35 25 14.9 103 GPa 0.34-0.40
Grade 2 UNS R50400 AMS 4902, 4941, 4942, AMS-T-9046 
ASTM F67(2), B265(2), B337(2), B338(2), B348(2), B367(C-2), B381(F-2), B861(2), B862(2), B863(2), F467(2), F468(2), F1341
SAE J467(A40)
C 0.10 max
Fe 0.30 max
H 0.015 max 
N 0.03 max
O 0.25 max
Ti Remaining
50 40 14.9 103 GPa 0.34-0.10
Grade 5 UNS R56400 AMS 4905, 4911, 4920, 4928, 4930, 4931, 4932, 4934, 4935, 4954, 4963, 4965, 4967, 4993, AMS-T-9046, AMS-T-81915,AS7460, AS7461 
ASTM B265(5), B348(5), B367(C-5), B381(F-5), B861(5), B862(5), B863(5), F1472 
AWS A5.16 (ERTi-5) 
AI 5.5-6.75 max
C 0.10 max
Fe 0.40 max
H 0.015 max 
N 0.05 max
O 0.20 max
Ti Remaining 
V 3.5-4.5
130 120 16.4 114 GPa 0.30-0.33
Grade 7 UNS R52400 ASTM B265(7), B338(7), B348(F-7), B861(7), B862(7), B863(7), F467(7), F468(7) C 0.10 max 
Fe 0.30 max
H 0.015 max
N 0.03 max
O 0.25 max 
Ti Remaining 
Other Pd 0.12-0.25
50 40 14.9 103GPa -
Grade 9 UNS R56320 AMS 4943, 4944, 4945, AMS-T-9046
ASTM B265(9), B338(9), B348(9), B381(9), B861(9), B862(9), B863(9) 
AWS A5.16(ERTi-9)
AI 2.5-3.5
C 0.05 max 
Fe 0.25 max 
H 0.013 max
N 0.02 max 
O 0.12 max 
Ti Remaining
V 2.0-0-3.0
90 70 13.1 107GPa 0.34
Grade 12 UNS R53400 ASTM B265(12), B338(12), B348(12), B381(F-12), B861(12), B862(12), B863(12) C 0.08 max 
Fe 0.30 max 
H 0.015 max 
Mo 0.2-0.4 
N 0.03 max 
Ni 0.6-0.9 
O 0.25 max 
Ti Remaining
70 50 14.9 103GPa -

Most of the titanium grades are of alloyed type with various additions of for example aluminum, vanadium, nickel, ruthenium, molybdenum, chromium or zirconium for the purpose of improving and/or combining various mechanical characteristics, heat resistance, conductivity, microstructure, creep, ductility, corrosion resistance, etc.

Titanium Benefits

  • High strength,
  • High resistance to pitting, crevice corrosion resistance,
  • High resistance to stress corrosion cracking, corrosion fatigue and erosion,
  • Cold bending for complex piping bends without fittings or flanges,
  • High strength to weight ratio,
  • Weight saving possibilities,
  • Low modulus, high fracture toughness and fatigue resistance,
  • Suitability for coiling and laying on seabed,
  • Ability to withstand hot/dry and cold/wet acid gas loading,
  • Excellent resistance to corrosive and erosive action of high-temperature acid steam and brine,
  • Good workability and weldability.

Titanium Chemical Composition

Palladium (Pd) and Ruthenium (Ru), Nickel (Ni) and Molybdenum (Mo) are elements which can be added to the pure titanium types in order to obtain a significant improvement of corrosion resistance particularly in slightly reducing environments where titanium otherwise might face some problems due to insufficient conditions for formation of the necessary protective oxide film on the metal surface. The formation of a stable and substantially inert protective oxide film on the surface is otherwise the secret behind the extraordinary corrosion resistance of titanium.

The mechanical properties of commercially pure titanium are in fact controlled by “alloying” to various levels of oxygen and nitrogen to obtain strength level varying between approximately 290 and 550 MPa. For higher strength levels alloying elements, e.g. Al and V have to be added. Ti 3AL 2.5V has a tensile strength of minimum 620 MPa in annealed condition and minimum 860 MPa in the as cold worked and stress relieved condition. The CP-titanium grades are nominally all alpha in structure, whereas many of the titanium alloys have a two phase alpha + beta structure. There are also titanium alloys with high alloying additions having an entire beta phase structure. While alpha alloys cannot be heat treated to increase strength, the addition of 2.5% copper would result in a material which responds to solution treatment and ageing in a similar way to aluminum-copper.

Titanium Density

Titanium is more then 46% lighter than steel. For comparative analysis, aluminum is approximately 0.12 lbs/, Steel is approximately 0.29 lbs/, and Titanium is approximately 0.16 lbs/

Titanium Corrosion Resistance

Titanium’s outstanding corrosion resistance is due to the formation of a tightly adherent oxide film on its surface. When damaged, this thin invisible layer immediately reforms, maintaining a surface which is completely resistant to corrosive attack in sea water and all natural environments. This oxide is so resistant to corrosion that titanium components often look brand new even after years of service.

Copper Nickel

UNS C70600 – UNS C70620 – UNS C7060x – UNS C71500 – UNS C71520 – UNS C71640

CuNi 90/10 & CuNi 70/30 Plate/Sheet

CuNi 90/10 & CuNi 70/30 Seamless & Welded Tube

CuNi 90/10 & CuNi 70/30 Seamless & Welded Pipe

CuNi 90/10 & CuNi 70/30 Round Bar

CuNi 90/10 & CuNi 70/30 Flanges

CuNi 90/10 & CuNi 70/30 Seamless & Welded BW Fittings

NB & EEMUA OD Size Chart

Trade Name UNS Copper Nickel Industry Specifications Chemical Composition Min.Tensile (KSI) Min.Yield (KSI) Elongation %
CuNi 90/10 UNS C70600
UNS C70620
ASME SB111, SB171, SB359, SB395, SB466, SB467, SB543
ASTM B111, B122, B151, B171, B359, B395, B432, B466, B467, B543, B608
DIN 2.0872
MIL C-15726, T-15005, T-16420, T-22214
SAE J461, J463
Cu 88.6 min
Pb .05 max*
Fe 1.8 max
Zn 1 max*
Ni 9-11 max
Mn 1.0 max
38 15 30
CuNi 90/10 UNS C7060X EEMUA 144 90/10, 145 90/10, 14 90/1 Cu rem.
Pb .01 max
Fe 1.5-2.0
Zn 0.2 max
P 0.2 max
S 0.2 max
Ni 10-11
Mn 0.5-1.0
40 15 30
CuNi 70/30 UNS C71500
UNS C71520
ASME SB111, SB171, SB359, SB395, SB466, SB467, SB543
ASTM B111, B122, B151, B171, B359, B395, B432, B467, B543, B552, B608, F467, F468
DIN 2.0882
MIL C-15726, T-15005, T-16420, T-22214
SAE J461, J463
Cu (65.0 min)
Pb .05 max*
Fe 0.4-1.0
Zn 1 max*
Ni 29-33
Mn 1 max
 52 18 45
CuNi 70/30 UNS C71640 ASTM B111, B543, B552 Cu rem 
Pb .05 max*
Fe 1.7-2.3
Zn 1 max*
Ni 29-32
Mn 1.5-2.5
63 25 --

*When the product is subsequent welding applications and so specified by the purchaser, Zn shall be .50% max., Pb .02% max., P .02% max., Sulfur .02% max. and Carbon .05% max.

General Copper Nickel information

Cu-Ni alloys are alloys of copper (base metal with the largest individual content) and nickel with or without other elements, whereby the zinc content may not be more than 1%. When other elements are present, nickel has the largest individual content after copper, compared with each other element. As with other copper alloys, it is necessary to distinguish between wrought alloys, which are processed to semi-finished products, and cast alloys, from which castings are produced by various casting processes. The Cu-Ni alloys with additions of manganese are important in electrical engineering. Additions of iron significantly improve the resistance of Cu-Ni alloys to erosion corrosion in flowing seawater and other aggressive waters.

Copper Nickel Applications

  • Desalination
  • Seawater Piping Systems

Copper Nickel Corrosion Resistance

Copper alloys have very good resistance to seawater, brine water, organic compounds, salts, diluted non-oxidizing acids, and more. CuNi 90/10 (C70600 & C7060X) is a Copper Nickel Iron alloy with a small content of manganese which allows excellent resistance to sea- and brakish water. Of all commercial coper alloys, CuNi 70/30 (C71500) offers the best resistance to aqueous corrosion. It is resistant to acid solutions and highly resistant to stress corrosion cracking, and impingement corrosion. In addition, CuNi70/30 offers a greater strength for higher pressures.

Copper Nickel Heat Resistance

The hot strength of copper increases with only a small addition of nickel. By adding iron, mechanical properties are improved, not only at room temperature, but also at elevated temperatures. 10% Ni. CuNi10Fe1Mn, for example, can be used in pressure vessel construction up to 300°C, CuNi30Mn1Fe up to 350°C. Above these limit temperatures, strength drops markedly, particularly the creep strength and creep strain limit.

Copper Nickel Heat Treatment

In general, heat treatments are only used with Cu-Ni alloys for soft annealing and stress relieving. Temperatures for recrystallisation annealing can vary over wide limits between about 620 and 900°C, depending on degree of cold work, nickel content and additional constituents. High temperatures are associated with short annealing times (continuous annealing) and low temperatures with long annealing times (static annealing). Stress-relief annealing is carried out at 280 to 500°C. It is advisable to anneal excluding air or in a slightly reducing atmosphere, to avoid the pickling that is required with air-containing annealing atmospheres.

Nickel Alloys

UNS N02200 – UNS N02201 – UNS N04400 – UNS N06600 – UNS N06601 – UNS N06625 – UNS N08800, UNS N08810, UNS N08811, UNS N08825 – UNS N10276 – UNS N06022

Nickel Plate/Sheet

Nickel Seamless & Welded Tube

Nickel Seamless & Welded Pipe

Nickel Round Bar

Nickel Flanges

Nickel Seamless & Welded BW Fittings

Trade Name UNS Nickel Alloy Industry Specifications Chemical Composition
Nickel 200 UNS N02200 ASME SB-160, SB-161, SB-162, SB-163
ASTM B160, B161, B162, B163, B366, B564, B725, B730
AWS C2.25 (W-Ni-2)
C 0.15 max
Cu 0.25 max
Fe 0.40 max
Mn 0.35 max
Ni 99.0 min
S 0.010 max
Si 0.35 max
Nickel 201 UNS N02201 ASTM B160, B161, B162, B163, B366, B725, B730 C 0.02 max
Cu 0.25 max
Fe 0.40 max
Mn 0.35 max
Ni 99.0 min
S 0.010 max
Si 0.35 max
Alloy 400
Monel 400®
UNS N04400 AMS 4544, 4574, 4575, 4730, 4731, AS7233
ASME SB-127, SB-163, SB-164, SB-165, SB-564
ASTM B127, B163, B164, B165, B366, B564, B725, B730, F96, F467 (400), F468 (400)
MIL SPEC MIL-N-24106, MIL-T-1368, MIL-V-17547
C 0.3 max
Cu rem
Fe 2.50 max
Mn 2.00 max
Ni 63.00-70.00
S 0.024 max
Si 0.50 max
Alloy 600
Inconel 600®
UNS N06600 AMS 5540, 5580, 5665, 5687, 5961, AS7232
ASME SB-163, SB-166, SB-167, SB-168, SB-564
ASTM B127, B163, B164, B165, B366, B564, B725, B730, F96, F467 (400), F468 (400)
MIL SPEC MIL-N-24106, MIL-T-1368, MIL-V-17547
C 0.3 max
Cu rem
Fe 2.50 max
Mn 2.00 max
Ni 63.00-70.00
S 0.024 max
Si 0.50 max
Alloy 601
Inconel 601®
UNS N06601 ASTM B166, B167, B168, B751, B775, B829
ASME SB166, SB167, SB168, SB751, SB775, SB829
Ni 58.00-63.00
Cr 21.00-25.00
Al 1.00-1.70
C 0.10
Mn 1.00
Cu 1.00
Si 0.50
S 0.015
Fe Balance
Alloy 625
Inconel 625®
UNS N06625 ASTM 5599, 5869, 5666, 5581, 5837
ASME B366, B443, B446, B444, B564, B704, B705, B751, B775, B829
C 0.10 max
MN 0.5 max
P 0.15 max
S 0.15 max
Si 0.50 max
Cr 20.0-23.0
Ni 58.0 min
Mo 8.0-10.0
Co 1.0 max
Ti 0.40 max
Al 0.40 max
Fe 5.0 max
Nb 3.15-4.15
Alloy 825
Incoloy 825®
UNS N08825 ASTM B163, B423, B425, B564, , B424, SB425, SB564, B704, B705, B751, B775, B829, B906
ASME SB163, SB423, SB424, SB425, SB564, SB704, SB751, SB775, SB809, SB906
C 0.05 max
Cr 19.25-23.5
Fe 0.50 max
Ni 38.0-46.0
Al 0.2 max
Ti 0.6-1.2
Cu 1.5-3.0
Mo 2.5-3.5
Hastelloy C-276®
UNS N10276 ASTM B574, B564, G28-A/B, B575, A480, B619, B626
ASME SB574, SB564, SB575, SB619, SB626
Cr 14.5-16.5
W 3.0-4.5
Mn 1.0 max
V 0.35 max
S 0.03 max
No 15-0-17.0
Fe 4.0-7.0
Co 2.5 max
C 0.02 max
P 0.03 max
Si 0.08
Ni Balance
Hastelloy C-22®
UNS N06022 ASTM B574, B575, B619, B622, B626
ASME SB574, SB575, SB619, SB622, SB626
Ni 56
Co 2.5
Cr 22
Mo 13
W 3
Fe 3
Si 0.08
Mn 0.50
C 0.010
V 0.35